Category Archives: Sabre technique

The Sabre Codex 4.1: Sweep Defence

Advanced comprises weeks 31 to 40 of the Sydney Sabre syllabus and is all about defence.


We start by revisiting the core concept that in sabre, defence is ultimately about evading or intercepting the arc of the Attacker’s blade. While in many cases this is straightforward – retreats/ducks/jumps to evade, beats and parries to intercept, and counterattacks for multi-taskers to hit and intercept and evade at the same time – strong Attackers are accustomed to dealing with these comparatively simple actions. So we start this cycle with the introduction of your first compound defensive action: the sweep.

Sweeps are a class of actions used to clear an entire 2-dimensional plane of the Attacker’s blade. All sweeps begin with a check, or a feint counterattack, to the Attacker’s eyes to encourage them to finish their attack and/or present their blade. The sweep then clears a pre-planned plane of the Attacker’s blade. Each plane follows a path which makes it easy to parry an attack during the sweep, and ends in a parry position. Sweeps are thus different to beats, which generally clear a smaller arc plane and are made against the current rather than anticipated position of their blade.

In week 1, we cover three common sweeps: the headlock, in the horizontal plane; the barrell-roll, which covers one diagonal plane; and the seconde, for the diagonal plane. We will go over some of the tricks to draw the Attacker’s attention to a defensible target, and make them forget your blade so you can catch theirs. If time permits, we will also pull off the same effect by chaining multiple sweeps together, or even coupling fake-sweeps which look big and slow with real sweeps that are deceptively small and fast.

The Sabre Codex 3.1: The March

Intermediate comprises weeks 21 to 30 of the Sydney Sabre syllabus and is all about the attack.


March – the term for what a sabreur with priority does to put themselves in a position to finish their attack. The aim of the March is to wear through your opponent’s defences to get to the point where you can strike with impunity. It is less about rushing after/into/through your opponent as it is about systematically shredding through the bits of their defence while tiring them out. Think Roman legions, not barbarian hordes.

In this week we cover the footwork part of the March to fool your opponent into fleeing from a fake attack, counterattacking out of distance against a fake hold, or frankly giving up and allowing you to enter their defence zone for the kill. A successful March depends on the Attacker knowing the correct distance to finish and the range of the Defender for their actions. We will spend some time playing that fine line between the range that the Defender thinks they can defend at and what you know they defend at, and revisit some of the footwork techniques from earlier courses to deceive the Defender.

The focus for the week, however, will stay firmly on developing the core concept of distance control. Remember: there is nothing wrong with just advancing into an opponent who has poor distance control and hitting them. Or running them off the end of the piste. And there is a special place for people who like to stick their opponent on the back line before finishing them off with a massive feint attack. We will cover this on request.

The Sabre Codex 2.1: Lunge

Novice 1: Lunge

Novice comprises weeks 11 to 20 of the Sydney Sabre syllabus and covers the basic techniques in sabre with an emphasis on distance and blade control.

We start the course with a revision of the lunge – the fastest short-range attack move in sabre. Contrary to popular belief, the main purpose of the lunge is to enable you to hit your opponent as quickly as possible, once you are within range. It is the fundamental unit of attack in most schools of sabre and forms part of other, longer range attack moves such as the advance lunge.

In this class, we cover the three (3) main types of lunge, each with a different purpose. We start with your grandpa’s ‘traditional’ lunge which we use as a training lunge to check whether you are doing everything properly in terms of hit distance, back leg extension, and hit timing. Once those are settled, we move to the ‘regular’ lunge that you will actually use in bouts with some technique variations to stop your joints from blowing out due to impact forces.

For the adventurous, we also cover the extended variant of the regular lunge to increase hit range after launch – the move we like to call “the Gu Bon Gil Special”. We will also teach you a particular variant that we stole shamelessly from certain A-grade teams where you use the back leg as a spring to store linear kinetic energy for the recovery. Special requests only, and at your own risk!

Novice is open to everyone who has completed our 10-week Beginner Course, and is included with any daily session pass or annual membership.


The Sabre Codex 1.1: Basic Combo

Welcome to a new series!

When we’re not coining catchy nicknames for ill-fated rule changes, we operate a large sabre club in Sydney focused on teaching as much of sabre to adult beginners in as efficient and systematic a way as possible. At the core of this effort lies a syllabus known as the Sabre Codex.

There are 5 levels, each with 10 parts:

  1. Beginner: Fundamental Rules and Movement in Sabre
  2. Novice: Sabre Technique
  3. Intermediate: The Attack Sequence
  4. Advanced: The Defense Sequence
  5. Competitive: Winning the 4m

There’s also a 10-part set of basic technical exercises shared by all levels: Footwork and Bladework. Taken together, the whole thing forms a 60-part class sequence, and we’re going to post a guide to each part of it right here.

Beginner 1: Basic Combo

Beginner comprises weeks 1 to 10 of the Sydney Sabre syllabus and is all about learning the fundamental rules and movements in sabre. In week 1, we tackle the first challenge you will face in a bout: What should you do at the start of the fight?

At the start of the bout, neither sabreur has an advantage. Your aim is to win priority or to hit your opponent before they can hit you. To help you do this, we’ll show you a simple but powerful tactical combination to trick your opponent into doing what you want, and defeat their action. We’re basically going to play rock-paper-scissors, but with swords.

fall short

Here’s how it works: you make an educated guess what your opponent is likely to do, and use the right move to beat them. There is no move in sabre that beats all other moves. Every action has a counteraction. And at the start of the fight, it all pretty much boils down to three moves which counteract each other just like rock-paper-scissors: 1) “Rock”: a short fast attack, e.g. advance lunge; 2) “Paper”: a fake attack followed by a quick retreat to get out of the way; and 3) “Scissors”: faking a short attack but actually finishing with a long one.

Rock beats Scissors, because short fast attacks defeats long holding ones. Paper beats Rock, because a short attack will miss if the other sabreur retreats. And Scissors beats Paper, when one sabreur retreats expecting a short attack but is caught by a long one.

This week, you’ll be learning how to make each of these three moves, how to predict what your opponent is likely to do from their habits, and how to fake moves to seal your opponent’s fate. We call this tactical combination the “Basic Combo”, but don’t let the name deceive you: some variation of this game is played at every level of the sport right up to World Championship finals. It is simple, it is elegant, and it is effective enough to win you most of your bouts.

Here it is being deployed in the wild by the World #1. Three moves, five hits, 55 seconds.

Beginner is open to everyone who has completed our Introductory Session, and is included with any of our daily session passes or memberships.


Quick One: Hitting from the hip

All of us practice bladework from on-guard. But at least half my hits are from the hip. Pretty much all my finishes from the march are from the hip to avoid counterattacks. Guys like Gu Bon Gil and Alexey Yakimenko hit from the hip even off the start lines.

GBG hitting from the hip

So why don’t we practice hitting from the hip more, or at all?

Quick one: Parry this!

Here’s a dirty little secret in sabre: no one hits straight.

Everyone angulates.

I have complex feelings when I look at this picture.

It’s like one of those mystic “wax on, wax off” journeys in sabre training, the one where your coach spends years getting you to hold your sabre properly, make light fast touches, and relax.

Then one day, this happens:

Check out that wrist mobility.

Let it happen: Fencing footwork based on natural gait

The Lunge:

The movement starts with the front foot. The toes are lifted and the front swings forward with an extension of the knee. The front heel advances, skimming the floor, as the rear leg pushes with a vigorous extension of the knee.”

-Istvan Lukovitch, “Fencing, The New International Style” (1958)

If you’ve had a technical fencing lesson with almost any coach in the world, I’m prepared to bet you’ve been taught something along these lines. It’s near-universally accepted as the correct way to do footwork, and hours upon hours are spent on drills to train lifting the toe and flicking the heel along the ground.

If you’re like me, you probably struggled with this, and found it counter-intuitive and kind of unnatural. If you’ve ever queried it, you may have heard explanations like “You have to pick up your toes, so you don’t trip over them.”

You may well have then got on with your fencing career without really thinking about it, only to occasionally be pulled up by an indignant coach and told off for doing it wrong. Or, if you’re made of sterner stuff, you may have drilled it and drilled it until it became your default action in footwork, the toes lifting cleanly and the foot bouncing off the heel in snappy staccato actions. Lovely.

In either case, you may look with some confusion at the frequent action shots coming out of A-grade tournaments, which show things like this:

What is this maniac doing? (Photo thanks to
What is this maniac doing? (Photo thanks to

This is a badass athletic pose, but what is the action? If you ask an experienced fencer or coach, you’ll probably hear something like “He’s running” or “He’s about to cross his feet, like he always does, the fast little bastard” (actual quote). It’s certainly nothing that fits in the lovely classical cannon of toe first, heel second.

It’s also the the way a human body is built to move. This is how you put power to the ground to accelerate forwards.

So how does this apply to fencing?

We were running some drills with Kevin Moore, our visiting biomechanics guy. The aim of the drill was to destabilise your centre of mass forwards and allow yourself to start to fall, and then have the legs naturally do what they needed to do to stop it. While this was going on, I was snapping a few photos.

Remind you of anything?
Remind you of anything?

There’s that badass pose again. Dr Chow looks like he’s about to run off, like the fast little bastard he is. But what’s the next part of the action?

Waaaiiiit, what?
Wait, you’re doing it wrong.

Let’s clean that up a bit so he’s not actually in the process of falling over:

John lunge set
Hang on, that’s not how this is supposed to work.

Could that really be what Mr Kim is doing in the first photo above? I pulled up literally the first slow-mo video I could find of him launching a lunge where the feet were visible for the whole process:

Ohhhh crap...
Ohhhh crap…

Now, John Chow is a scientist at heart who is very happy to try out crazy things if they might work.  Kim Junghwan is well known in Serious Coaching Circles as a hideous abomination against all that is good and right in fencing. They’re doing it wrong because, I don’t know, it might make them go 1% faster or something, and they don’t care if they make nice fencers cry.

Let’s look at Mr Perfect Lunge himself, Gu Bongil.  Surely he does things properly.

Oh my god.
Oh my god.

Ok, ok, calm down. The Koreans are weird. Everyone knows that. They’re doing some kind of nutball thing that goes along with the bouncing and front-splits and god knows what else it is they get up to.

I went to have a bit of a dig around.

Show me the data

At this point, it’s more efficient if I just let the footage speak for itself.

And I warn you. What is seen cannot be unseen.

That, ladies and gentlemen, is what you see.

They’re doing it wrong. But what is “wrong”?


Nobody, and I mean nobody, does the toe lift thing in a real fight. Nobody. I went through close to a hundred lunge samples in men’s sabre, and I couldn’t find it once, even in cases where the lunge is launched from a stationary position. Everyone lifts the heel first, even if it’s only a slight lift.

If you ask these guys what they’re doing when they lunge, they’ll mostly tell you what they’ve been taught: that they’re lifting the toe first and the heel last. They’ve been drilled in it, for thousands of hours in some cases. But their bodies are overriding their minds.

And that’s OK.

In any fight between your brain and your foot about movement, your foot is going to win.

– Kevin Moore

Fencing footwork should be based on natural human gait, and natural human gait involves lifting the heel first and the toe last.

I have never been presented with any kind of real argument for why lifting the toe first provides an advantage in terms of speed, power, energy efficiency, injury risk or indeed anything besides possibly a slightly better chance of adjusting distance mid-action, which I’ve always found a bit dubious in the heat of a fight.

It is, as far as I can work out, a convention based on what the biggest and most obvious part of the action is when viewed with the naked eye. I can see why people believe it: I believed it for years too. The flick up of the toe is what jumps out at you when you watch the action, particularly if you’re already been told to look for it.

Every lunge photo ever is some kind of variation on this theme.
Every lunge photo ever is some kind of variation on this theme.

But it has no basis in science.

What we’re seeing in the video, therefore, is not the messy pragmatism of combat. This isn’t people’s nice technique falling apart under stress. This is athletes listening to their bodies, even if totally subconsciously, and moving the way that is most effective.

What these guys are doing in bouts is more correct, in a pure technical sense, than what they’re doing in footwork drills. It’s a better movement.

So who the hell am I to tell you what’s correct?

I am acutely conscious that as an amateur fencer from a new club at the ends of the Earth, I don’t really have what you might call an established position to be throwing around claims that everyone is teaching footwork wrong. I am, however, a scientist by training, and unfortunately we get raised to believe that stuff like established position doesn’t mean squat in the face of data, even though that can get highly uncomfortable at times.

Luckily, this is not one of those times. We are by no means the first to make this observation.

The origins of this sport are in combat, real combat. The guys who were trying to kill each other weren’t going to mess around with arbitrary training conventions about toes unless there was at least some kind of observational evidence for an advantage. Surely this practical attitude fed into fencing as an Olympic sport?

The right toes leave the ground last, the right heel touches the ground first.

-Aldo Nadi, “On Fencing” (1943)

And there you have it. You can argue with me all you like (although I’ve got a lot of data to wave at you). But you want to argue with this guy?

This guy will cut you.
This guy will cut you.

So what? What should we all be doing?

If you dearly love bouncing along on your heel in beautiful sharp staccato actions, eh, it’s probably OK I guess. You’re a bit of a weirdo as far as I’m concerned, but whatever floats your boat, I’m not here to judge.

But if you’re like most people and you struggle with that kind of thing, the good news is it’s almost certainly pointless and you can throw it out the window without losing a single thing. This frees you to spend your training time and effort on stuff that’s actually going to be effective. Make your footwork light and soft and springy. While you’re at it, go check out the most adorable training video ever (noting the light, soft, springy footwork from Mr Nazlymov).


On a more serious note, there may very well be much more important implications to all of this. We will develop this further over the coming months, as we continue our collaboration with Reembody.

But for now, my advice is to let your legs move the way they want to move, and stop feeling guilty for not conforming to some arbitrary movement standard from 1958.

Space magic: Gu Bongil defies the laws of Nature, and also has rather good glutes.

We’re working on some new biomechanics projects at the moment. As regular readers may be aware, we’ve been interested in Gu Bongil as a beautiful example of how to move efficiently.

While we were digging around for data, we found this.


We had a chat with visiting biomechanics expert Kevin C. Moore about what’s going on here. Surprisingly, it’s not all done with magnets.

FC: Kevin, is this incontrovertible proof that the Korean sabre program has developed an anti-gravity device?

KM: Maybe not anti-grav, but certainly a method of getting pretty epic energy return.

What blows my mind the most about this is how the gait-like behaviour in the leading foot (the natural dorsi/plantar flexion cycle) is feeding entirely off the energy transfer of the the back leg. Not even tapping the floor with that right foot means that his abdominal wall and spinal column are absorbing enough functional reaction force  to momentarily replace the acceleration of freaking gravity as the source of forward momentum.

The internal relationships are so clean, in fact, that on landing he even manages to load all his initial impact in that dominant glute, which is hard enough to do well when you run, much less when you’re fencing and can’t cross your feet.

So not so much magnets a series of coiling springs. Which, after all, is what the musculoskeletal system is.

Either that or the rumours are true, and we’ve just proved that Mr Gu is a space alien.

All in all, a pretty astonishing demonstration.

Old man game

Bring it, kid.
Bring it, kid.

“I am like Rocky…Rocky 3, Rocky 4, Rocky 5″ – Aldo Montano (age 36)

I figure when the overwhelming reaction to our post on the Korean pro sabre training program is WTF, most of you are probably thinking how you’re going to get anywhere near that schedule.

Kim Junghwan does the thing with the eyebrow
“Do you have any idea what I had to do to get this?”

The vast majority of the people who are reading this are recreational fencers. We’re amateurs in the oldest sense of the word. We love sabre, but we also have jobs or school or kids. We definitely have other things we want/have to do in life. None of us are as young as we used to be – and it hits us much earlier than we expect.

Every victory a perfect moment…
Every victory a chance to rest.

So what can we do? In the spirit of this post by a hobbyist Jiu Jitsu practitioner, here are three of my personal observations on the on training as an older sabre fencer.

Continue reading Old man game